string casing methods
We’ve already seen how powerful Python can be when dealing with strings. We can search the string with the
inkeyword, we can take a piece of text by slicing it, take its length, format with
f-strings, etc. That’s actually only the tip of the iceberg.
In Python, there are many utility functions to deal with more involved text manipulations. There are 40+ utilities that can be used in different scenarios. The whole list of those methods can be found on the official python webpage: string methods. The good news is that it’s not necessary to remember them all. Almost all of them have a very intuitive name and it’s easy to find what’s necessary with a quick google search. We will cover some very popular functions which come in handy from time to time and are used frequently when working with strings.
# .upper() makes all the letters uppercase s = 'What happened to Anna?' up = s.upper() print('Hi 123 this is Sally!'.upper()) # HI 123 THIS IS SALLY! print(s) # What happened to Anna? print(s.upper()) # WHAT HAPPENED TO ANNA? print(up) # WHAT HAPPENED TO ANNA? # .lower() makes all the letters lowercase s = 'What happened to Anna?' low = s.lower() print('Hi 123 this is Sally!'.lower()) # hi 123 this is sally! print(s) # What happened to Anna? print(s.lower()) # what happened to anna? print(low) # what happened to anna? # .title() start all the words with a capital letter (title-case) s = 'What happened to Anna?' title = s.title() print('Hi 123 this is Sally!'.title()) # Hi 123 This Is Sally! print(s) # What happened to Anna? print(s.title()) # What Happened To Anna? print(title) # What Happened To Anna? # .capitalize() start all the sentences with a capital letter s = 'What happened to Anna?' capital = s.capitalize() print('Hi 123 this is Sally!'.capitalize()) # Hi 123 this is sally! print(s) # What happened to Anna? print(s.capitalize()) # What happened to anna? print(capital) # What happened to anna? # .swapcase() turn lowercase -> uppercase, uppercase -> lowercase s = 'What happened to Anna?' swapped = s.swapcase() print('Hi 123 this is Sally!'.swapcase()) # hI 123 THIS IS sALLY! print(s) # What happened to Anna? print(s.swapcase()) # wHAT HAPPENED TO aNNA? print(swapped) # wHAT HAPPENED TO aNNA?
It’s important to note that the string methods do not modify the original variable. They create a new value and return it. The original value stays the same. So, when calling
a.lower(), the value of
adoes not change. It stays the same, but
lower()returns a new value that contains the lowercase version of
You are given a command and a piece of text. Your task is to apply that command to the text.
The command can be any of:
The command can also be represented with capitals and lowercase letters. The command handling should not be case-sensitive.
The first line of the program contains the command. The second line contains the text which needs to be modified.
The output should be a single line - the transformed text.
Upper What's your name??
WHAT'S YOUR NAME??
Time limit: 1 seconds
Memory limit: 512 MB
Output limit: 1 MB